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University of 
Connecticut Libraries 

3 =1153 013b4fa«W 1 







The Frenc 
Iwdi War 



"^ P. 

I he Associates of The John Carter Bi 


THE war between Great Britain and France which took place between 1754 and 1763 is known by a number of names. Europeans call it 
the Seven Years War. In America we have for many years called it the French and Indian War. More recently the distinguished 
historian, Lawrence H. Gipson, has called it 'The Great War for the Empire." The last is the most descriptive, for it was the culmination 
of a long series of wars between the two countries that began at the end of the seventeenth century. Each had its American counterpart with an 
American name. The War of the League of Augsburg we call King William's War ( 1689-1698). The War of the Spanish Succession we call 
Queen Anne's War ( 1702-17 13), and the War of the Austrian Succession we call King George's War (1743-1748). Each time North America 
played a more and more important role in the conflict. Finally in 1754 hostilities actually began in America when a small detachment of Vir- 
ginia troops under the command of a young colonial officer named George Washington was engaged by a force of French troops and then- 
Indian allies at Fort Necessity in Western Pennsylvania. By 1756 the war had spread to Europe and by 1757 to India. The final surrender ol 
North America to the British forces with the fall of Montreal in 1760 signaled the end of the war although lighting continued in the West 
Indies and elsewhere until the treaty of peace in 1763. For Americans, however, the struggle for this continent ended just two hundred years 
ago. In a sense, then, this album is issued to commemorate the bicentennial of the victory which decided that most of North America was to be 
a part of the English-speaking world. 

For the album we have selected from the Library's holdings thirty-seven maps, prints, broadsides, and title-pages of pamphlets which we 
feel graphically illustrate the era of the Great War for Empire. W'c have started out with a smalt group of background items such as our 17.7 
Southack map, the first map to be engraved on copper and published in this country. I Iowevcr, the rest of the illustrations deal with the war 
of 1 754 to 1763. Two of them are about the West Indies, but the remainder reflect the operations in North America. This group begins with 
the scarce Williamsburg edition of Washington's Journal. The maps include the suppressed Fisher Chart of Delaware Ray of 1756. The car- 
toons are from the R.T.Haines Halsey collection acquired by the Library in 1952 and described in our ^»w«d(/ Report for 195 1- 1952. If asked 
which was our favorite item, we would unhesitatingly say that the Johnston view of Quebec exceeds all the others in interest, significance, and 
charm. We only regret that we are unable to reproduce it in its original color. 

An understanding of our past must come from many sources. We hope these illustrations will give some flavor of the way contemporary 
men and women learned what was happening on the American frontier. 

This booklet is the tenth publication of the Associates of the John Carter Brown Library. It was distributed at their annual meeting on 
April 14, i960, when Mr. Howard H. Peckham, Director of the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, spoke on "Struggle 
for North America, 1690- 1760. The French and English Wars for Supremacy." 


-—— «—- — - ■ 


O F T H E 

Late Adions 


Crenel) at Cana&a? 


O F T H E 



The Manner of their being RepulsU by 
Majefties Gov ernour of New-Tork. 

Impartially Related byCoU. Nicholas Reyard, and Lie*- 
unant Coll Charles Lodowick, rcho attended Htf 
Excellency, during the whole Expedition. 

To which is added, 

I An Account of the prefent State and Strength of C W<y 
' riven by Two Dutch Men. who have been a long Time Fri- 

loners there, and now made their Efcape. 

II The Examination of a French Prifoncr. 

HI His Excellency Benjamin Flttcher\ Speech to the Indians. 

IV An Addrefs from the Corporation of Albany, to His Excellen- 
cy, Returning Thanks for His Excellency's early AMance tor 
their Relief. 

Luentco, Sept. nth 1 693. eottatD Cuoat. 

London, Printed for BJcbard Baldwin, in lV*rmck-Lane y 169}, 

Under the Command of 


Againft the 



Sent in a 
Letter from Major Thomas Savage of Bofton in New-England 
(who was prefent at the Action) to his Brother Mr. Perez 
Savage in London. 

Together with the Articles of War compofed and agreed upon 
for that purpole. 

JLiCCIlfcD April jj. 1691, 

London, Printed for Thomas Jones at the White Horfe without 
Temple-Bar^ 1691. 

No. 1. Nicholas Bayard. Journal, London, 1693. 

No. 2. Thomas Savage. An Account, London, 169 1 

No. 3. Cyprian Southack. The English Empire in North America, Boston, ,7,7- 









No. 5. Landing of New England Forces at Louisbourg in 1745. 




Major George W'afljingtd^^Sj 


His Majefty's Lieutenant-Governor, and 
Commander in Chief of VIRGINIA) 



O F T H E j 


O N 



governor's letter; 

And a T R A N S L A T I O N of the 


Printedby WILLI AM HUNTE R. ifs$ 


No. 6. George Washington. Journal, Williamsburg, 1754. 


Fronvihe Time of his being Taken, near 

Fort JVilliam-Henry ', 

Jane the 25th 1758. 

With an Account of his Efcape from 

^1/ E B E C, 

And his Arrival at 


On JUNE the 6th 1759. 


Printed and Sold by Edes and GUI in QiwStrtet, 

No. 7. Simon Stevens. Journal, Boston, 1760. 



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No. 8. Thomas Jeff erys. The South Part of Nova Scotia, 1750, 

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No. 9. British Resentment, London, 1755. 

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No. io. A View of Louisbourg in 175 8 ' 

No. ii. The Capture of Louisbourg, 1758. 



J)e la Vi&oire remportte par Us Franpois » fir un Corf* 
deTroupesAnglolfis > commands par le General Braddocx, 
pres I* Ohio dans I'Amerique feptentrionale. (t* n „„ 

LE Vaifleau de Guerre le Cheval-Marin arrive 
de la Virginie ^ a apporte ici la Nouvelle d'un 
Combat qui s'eft donne le 9 du mois dernier, 
entre les Francois &c lesAnglois fur Ics Rives 
d'Ohio. Les Lords Regens en ont re$u les particularity 
fuivantes , dont Ieurs Excellences ont aulhtot informe 
leRoi par unMefTager d'Etat qu'ils ont expedie a Ha- 

Le General Braddock vinx camper dans les premiers 
jours du mois de Juillet au petit Meadows » en de$a 
du Fort de Cumberland a Wills-Chreck , avec -Ton 
Corps d'Armee compofe de deux miMe Hommes , 8c 
avec l'Artillerie , les Bagages & les Munitions. Pour 
profiter de l'ardeur que marquoient les Troupes , il ju- 
gea ne devoir pas differer de marcher aux Francois qui 
avoient leurs forces raflemblees au Fort du Quelne, Il 
s'avan^a vers eux avec 1200 hommes & dix pieces de 
canon , & laifla le refte au petit Meadov/s fous les or- 
dres du Colonel Dumbar , qu'il chargea de venir le 
joindre auffi promptement qu'il lui ieroit poflible, 
Aprcs avoir campe le 8 Juillet a dix inilles dc diftance 
duFort du Queuie,, il ie remit en marche le o. pour 







Ficando toda a Guarni$ao pvizioneira de 


Anno de 1758. 
Com todas iicctifas necejfarias. 

No. 13. Portuguese newsletter 

concerning the fall of Louisbourg, 1758 

No. 12. French newsletter on Braddock's defeat, 1755 




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No. 14. General Braddock's Route, drawn by Christopher Gist, 1755. 

No. 15. Joshua Fisher. Chartof Delaware Bay, Philadelphia, 1756. 

\ ' f rrtm Monk s HfllEttt. j b, / 


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1 Jj-ngOjAb Hiubour. 
•i.l\rfkk-v Tort. 
3 Am uli T,;d\ Tomi 3artei;v 
-4 . Xlie Nav.v Yard . 

tf.Tbe Capita Wimxfo , 

o\ TW Uliuii.'* ibm paj*ttS v i^o Harbour 

*it>. FhI mouth Town. 
11. Part of ^Monism-bill tort 

ft. Tb* fti*. Ou-u -Battery. 

Taken h Hflliam <£maier. JJ>.fS3 

No. 1 6. English and Falmouth Harbours in Antigua, 1752, 





ill ,1 StfiHi-trnn •■fl*sJf.t/\,t.\'i>y.f/U',,r 

I'nmiiuUidt'iUivCoinuuHliiivMtMiltl- tm\ Tl A\u{.\J,\ff . 

•ibiitbr IXCAJll'.U ft A J ",v ofthr 

JtlUTISHARMY ('cmininu.l.illiv(;,ii!Hni'SON, 

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mill iiih- of hi* Miij.-llr.iiuill IIuticiiicilili-lYirv('uiKk-il 

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No. 17. Attack upon Basse-Terre, in Guadeloupe, 1760. 



t/f > / 

No. 1 8. Major Robert Rogers. 


O F 

Major Robert Rogers: 


An Account of the feveral Excurfions he made 
under the Generals who commanded upon 
the Continent of North America, during 
the late War. 

From which may by colle&cil 

The moft material Circumftances of every Cam- 
paign upon that Continent, from the Commence- 
ment to the Conclufion of the War. 


Printed for the A U T H O R, 
And fold by J., Book feller, near Whhcha. 

No. 19. Robert Rogers. Journals, London, 1765, 


{ h y%e t ///<//// /t.i 

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At Harris's Ferry, and at Lancaster, 

In March y slprit, and May y 1757. 

P H I LA D E LP // I A: 

Printed and Sold by R P R A N K L I N, and D. H A L L, at t!>c 
New-Printing-office^ near die Market. MDCCLVII. 

No. 20. Colonel Bouquet at a Council Fire in 1 764. 

No. 21. Minutes of Conferences, held with the Indians, Philadelphia, 1757, 


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Trade 1 q Pfiroff 

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No. 23. The state of the British Empire in 1757. 



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' ' i. h« Spot ■(■, ' ^'limn s„,,.i. r.' 1S»I SnndbrJtaouAd'h-r.Bemwrdi ' 

No. 26. Miramichi, French settlement in Canada. 

E N v I R O N S ov Q I' E Jl E C . 

T>» rNK.iiii LiM>-i>ii>tnt(i«. 

No. 27. Thomas Jefferys. Plan of Quebec in 1759. 

1 Vttw 


in the Houfe of Reprefentatives, March 
23d. 1759. 

'Otcd, That the following Eftablifhment be made for the Officers 
&c that may be employed in chc intended Expedition againft 
mada K via. 
For a Colonel tocach Regiment, confining ?f %t 

of not lefs than nine Hundred Men, , $*** " 
For one Lieut. Colonel for fuch Regiment, 1 

■For one Major to Ditto, l\ 

For a Captain of oncHundrcdMcn.including ? ( 

Officers, S 

For two Lieutenants for fuch Company.cach 
For one Enfign for Ditto, 

13 4 Ditto. 
6 8 Ditto. 

o o Ditto. 

?,/{p . - - -For one Chaplain to each Regiment, if a fct- 7 

1, 5 

2, - 


tied Miniftcr,and leaves his Congregation, 
For a Miniftcr not fettled, 
_For one Chirurgeon to Ditto, 
P^two Glururgcoiy. Mate to Ditto, 
For one Adjutant 

/,'. a For each Sergeant 

For each Corporal, 
For two Drummers to a Regiment, each 
For one Director of Hofpital Stores, 
For each Private, 













A Am 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

T. Hubbard, Speaker. 
In Council March 23. 1759. Read and concur'd. 

A. Oliver^ Seer. 

Contented to 


DESERTED from Capt. John Wright 
oiBofton, on Wednefday the n' h of 
this Inftant, one John Pepperrell, 
(who was hired by faid Wright to go in the 
prefent Exoedition) he is a Man about 40 
Years of Age ; five Feet fix Inches high, of 
a brown Compledion, and wears his own 
dark, fhort curl'd hair. Had on when he 
went away, a Cloth-coWd Coat, ftrip d 
Breeches and Yarn Stockings. 

Whoever will take up faid Deferter, and - 
bring him to the Sign of the Bear in Knig- 
Street, Bo/ton, or commit him to any Goal 
in this Province, (hall have Two Dollars 
Reward, and all neceffary Charges pa.d by 
mCj John Wright. 

N B All Per Pons are forbid harbouring, concealing or 
carrying of faid Deferter, as they would avoid the Penalty 
of the Law. 

Boflon, ^pr'l «*' '759- 


No. 28. Pay scale for Massachusetts soldiers in 1759. 

No. 29. Advertisement for a Deserter. 

Quebec , g7%r &apjM of NEW-FRANCE, a $$fop^.and, 

*>.Mayoy»<:4, .{h\-<:<-/<f.>. r&ZteMtfaejJ* ^muna^.mTbe 6ormhmtHqfaM t^emfirm^^vaf Cm 

$JJ*fu/mte& JcAu6f, ; IQ.T/u J/rtr/Zfttu ■ ffifhcllennitngzpjllu'Rcxoieti. ^;;&>elfkoaUcht.<. zdJhmt Liem. 

No. 30. Quebec, engraved by Thomas Johnston, Boston, 1759. 

No. 35, Abercromby's attack on Ticonderoga, 1758. 

BOSTON: New-England : 

Printed and Sold by Benjamin Mecom> at The New 
Prints-Office, July 13. 1758. — "Where may- 
be had that noted little Book, called Father Abra- 
ham's SPEECH. 



Of the Protestants, in 

North America; 

Shewing how the French and Indians 
join together to fcalp the Engliflb, and 
the manner of their Scalping, 6cc. Sec* 

Printed and Sold in A'dermary Church-Yard, 
Bow Lane, LONDON. 

No. 37. The Cruel Massacre, c.iy6o. 

No. 36. JohnMaylem. Gallic Perfidy, Boston, 1758, 


No. i. Nicholas Bayard. A Journal of the 
Late Actions of the French at Canada. 
London, 1693. 
The military phase of the French and English 
struggle for North America began in 1690 with 
the massacre of the English colonists at Schenec- 
tady, New York. The Journal is by Nicholas 
Bayard, not Reyard, as appears on the title-page. 
He was one of the English officers who attempted 
to repulse the attack. This is an official account of 
the event that began what is now called King 
William's War. 

No. 2. Thomas Savage. An Account of the 
Late Action of the New-Englanders, 
under the Command of Sir William 
Phips, against the French at Canada. 
London, 1691. 

The abortive attempt of New England troops un- 
der Sir William Phips, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, to capture Quebec, was the beginning of an 
effort that was not to succeed until Wolfe's at- 
tack seventy years later. The author. Major 
Thomas Savage, took part in the expedition. 

No. 3. Cyprian Southack. [A New Chart 
of the English Empire in North Ameri- 
ca.] Boston, 1717. 

Engraved map. ijh x 31S inches. 
Southack's map, the earliest representation of 
what was to be the short-lived British Empire in 
North America, is also the first large-scale en- 
graving on copper made in this country. Drawn 
by an officer who for many years had commanded 
vessels operating in American waters, the map 
contains in the inscription references to the 
French encirclement of the British settlements. 

No. 4. Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row King 
of the Generethgarich. I Verelst Pinx. 
I Simon Fecit. [London, 17 10.] 

Mezzotint engraving. 16 x 10 inches. 
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
British frontier settlements were under constant 
attack by Indians of the Iroquois League. In order 
to dramatize this danger it was decided to send to 
England four chiefs of the Mohawks, the only 
Iroquois tribe then allied with the English. Dur- 
ing their visit in 1709-1710, the chiefs were lavish- 

ly entertained. This mezzotint print is one of the 
four portraits of the group known as the "Four 
Kings of Canada." 

No. 5. A View of the Landing the New 
England Forces in ye Expedition against 
Cape Breton, 1745. London, [1760.] 

Line engraving. 14^ x 20I inches. 
The capture of Louisbourg, the "Gibraltar of 
North America," by colonial troops under the 
command of William Pepperrell was a high point 
for the Americans in King George's War (1741- 
1748). Its subsequent return to the French by the 
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapellc in 1748 embittered the 
colonists who depended upon the fishing grounds 
off Cape Breton Island. This picture commemo- 
rating the event was issued two years after Louis- 
bourg was captured again during the French and 
Indian War. 

No. 6. George Washington. Journal. Wil- 
liamsburg, 1754. 

The first appearance of George Washington on 
the stage of history occurred when Governor 
Dinwiddie of Virginia sent him to Fort Duquesne 
on the Ohio River to ask the French to with- 
draw. The twenty-one-year-old major failed in 
his mission, but the account of that trip brought 
him to public notice. This is one of seven known 
copies of the Williamsburg edition. It was re- 
printed in England in the same year. 

No. 7. Simon Stevens. A Journal. Boston, 
Stevens was captured at the capitulation of Fort 
William Henry in 1758. His Journal, like May- 
lem's Poem (No. 36), was part of a substantial 
group of publications which helped arouse the 
colonial feelings against the French. 

No. 8. Thomas JefTerys. A Map of the 
South Part of Nova Scotia. London, 
Engraved map, colored. iz& x 16& inches. 
The inset in this map contains, in so far as we 
have been able to determine, the first published 
view of Halifax. The town had been founded in 
1749 by the British in order to offset the strategic 
importance of the French stronghold of Louis- 
bourg on Cape Breton Island. 

No. 9. British Resentment or the French 
fairly Coopt at Louisbourg. London, 

Engraved cartoon, colored. 10 x ii'i inches. 
Between its two captures, first in 1745 and second 
in 1758, Louisbourg continued to be a bitter mem- 
ory for those who saw it as a vital keystone in 
Britain's empire in North America. Jubilation is 
the note of the cartoon British Resentment, which 
tells in its graphic way that the war so long 
awaited commenced with the action of Captain 
Richard Howe in the ship Dunkirk against the 
French ship Alcide in June, 1755. This action 
opened the naval part of the French and Indian 

No. 10. A View of Louisbourg in North 
America, taken near the Light House. 
Drawn on the Spot by Capt. Incc. Lon- 
don, 1762. 

Line engraving. 13JI x 11 inches. 
This view from Sceno%rapbia Americana shows 
the fortress of Louisbourg as it was being be- 
sieged by the troops under Amherst's command. 
The lighthouse in the drawing was captured on 
June 12, 175N, by a detachment under Brigadier 
General Wolfe. 

No. n. Important] [Vess]els of [the 
French Fleet taken Ju | ly [26th] 1758 
By Admiral BoscaLwcn]. 175H. 

Broadside. 22 x 16 inches. 

The Library has been unable to locate another 
copy of this broadside which contains at its head 
a large cut of the capture of Louisbourg in 1758. 
The woodcut has an American look, but probably 
any American artist of the period would have 
had a better conception of Louisbourg than is 
here displayed. The text, which is not reproduced 
here for lack of space, seems to have been com- 
posed in England. Can anyone tell us more about 
this interesting piece? 

No. 12. Relation de la Victoire remportce 
par les Francois sur un Corps de Troupes 
Angloises, commande par le General 
Braddock, pres I'Ohio. [ 1 755- 1 

Newsletters were the principal means by which 
Europeans learned of the exploits of the armies 
in America during the French and Indian War. 

These small pamphlets, usually only a few pages 
long were cagerlv read. The Relation tells of the 
victory over Braddock, and is one of a number of 
similar items in the Library. 

No. 1 3. Noticia Certa da Tomada, e Rendi- 
mento de Cabo-Berton. Lisbon, 1758. 

This is a Portuguese newsletter similar CO the 
French one. No. 12. The Library has a number of 
these accounts of the fighting published by Brit- 
ain's traditional ally. The woodcut on the title- 
page is supposed to represent the capture of LouiS- 
bourg in 1758. 

No. 14. Christopher Gist. The Draught of 
Genl. Braddocks Route towards Fort 
DuQuesne. [ 1755.) 

Manuscript map. 14* \ i«'» inches. 
The tragedy of Braddock's defeat at Great 
Meadows in July of 1755 is recorded in this orig- 
inal manuscript map of the route drawn by one 
of the expedition's guides. Earlier Gist had ex- 
plored Kentucky for the Ohio Company and had 
accompanied Washington on his trip to Fort 
Duqucsne in 1753 and 1754. 

No. 15. Joshua Fisher. Chart of Delaware 
Bay. Philadelphia, 1756. 

Engraved map. 24a x 46S inches. 
Fisher's fine chart of the mouth of Delaware Bay 
is excessively rare. The Governor and Council of 
Pennsyh arua, fearing an attack by the French, or- 
dered that this first edition be suppressed. It was 
reprinted about 1775 and became the standard 
pilot chart of the area for many years. 

No. 16. "View of English and Falmouth 
Harbours, from Monks Hill Fort." In 
Kane William Horneck. A Report of 
the State of the Fortifications in the 
Island of Antigua. Manuscript, 1752. 

Watercolor drawing, n£ x 16 inches. 
William Brassier's drawing of English Harbor is 
part of a handsomely illustrated manuscript re- 
port on the fortifications of Antigua. The building 
and strengthening of forts in the West Indies dur- 
ing the early 1750's were part of the English 
preparations for the struggle that had become 

No. 17. George Rycaut. Plan of the At- 
tack against Basseterre on the Island of 
Guadaloupe. London, 1760. 

Engraved plan. i?i x 19 inches. 
A British expedition against the West Indies in 
175K and 1759 was commanded by Commodore 
John Moore and General Thomas P. Hopson. The 
capture of ISasse-Terre, the capital of Guade- 
loupe, was achieved after a successful bombard- 
ment of the town during which a warehouse filled 
with rum took fire. 
No. 18. Major Robert Rogers, Commander 
in Chief of the Indians in the Back Set- 
tlements of America. [London,] 1776. 

Me//<»tint engraving. 13^ x 10 inches. 
The most romantic figure to emerge from the 
French and Indian War was Major Robert 
Rogers. His exploits at the head of his independent 
company of scouts captured people's imagina- 
tions, and to this day his Rangers occupy a special 
niche in history. 

No. 19. Robert Rogers. Journals. London, 
Rogers's reputation was established when his 
Journals were printed. They went through a num- 
ber of contemporary editions. 

No. 20. "The Indians Giving A Talk to 
Colonel Bouquet in a Conference at a 
Council Fire." In William Smith. An 
Historical Account of the Expedition 
against the Ohio Indians. London, 1766. 
This picture of an Indian Council is typical of 
those held in the colonics in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It was drawn by the Pennsylvania artist, 
Benjamin West. 

No. 21. Minutes of Conferences, held with 
the Indians, at Harris's Ferry, and at 
Lancaster. Philadelphia, 1757. 
The British, like the French, continually sought 
the friendship of the Indians. The numerous 
treaties into which they entered were popular 
reading with the colonists; over fifty of them ap- 
peared between 1677 and 1768. From the Library's 
extensive collection, we have selected this hand- 
some example printed by the firm of Benjamin 
Franklin and David Hall. 

No. 22. The Right Honourable William 
Pitt Esqr. One of His Majesty's Prin- 
cipal Secretarys of State. [London, c. 

Mezzotint engraving. 15x11 inches. 

It can be argued that a decisive event in the 
struggle between Great Britain and France oc- 
curred when William Pitt finally came into power 
and took over the direction of the war. It is not 
too much to say that in 1756 he served Britain 
as Winston Churchill did in 1940. Assuming 
leadership after a scries of defeats, he planned 
the operations that culminated in victory. Like 
Churchill he was dismissed from office when that 
victory was assured. 

No. 23. Without From the London Eve- 
ning Post of Saturday June 11. 1757. 
London, 1757. 
Engraved cartoon, colored. 10 x 12! inches. 
The satirist who drew this cartoon just eighteen 
days before Pitt assumed power endeavored to 
show the desolate state into which the nation had 
fallen as a result of the inept management during 
the early years of the war. He shows the king be- 
fogged 'and powerless, a church served by self- 
indulgent bishops, looms idle and cobwebbed, 
sailors begging their bread, the common people 
listless and impoverished, the poor with starving 
children and a bare cupboard. In the North Amer- 
ican colonies a detachment of French and Indians 
attacks and burns an isolated farm and slaughters 
its inhabitants. 

No. 24. Major Genl. James Wolfe, Com- 
mander in Chief of his Majesty's Forces 
on the Expedition against Quebec. [Lon- 
don, c. 1760.] 
Mezzotint engraving. 14 x 10! inches. 
James Wolfe, a second lieutenant of marines at 
the age of fourteen and an ensign in a post regi- 
ment a year later in 1742, was an experienced and 
competent professional soldier when he was given 
command of a brigade in 1758 and sent to Ameri- 
ca. He "shone extremely at Louisbourg, but his 
ultimate fame, gained at the capture of Quebec, 
cost him his life. 

No. 25. The Honble. Robert Monckton 
Major General; Governor of New York. 
[London, c. 1760.] 

Mezzotint engraving. 13! x 10J inches. 
Monckton, like Wolfe, was a professional soldier 
from the age of fifteen. He came to America in 
1752. After having led in the capture of Fort 
Beausejour in June, 1755. he was appointed sec- 
ond in command to Wolfe in the Quebec expedi- 
tion in 1759. He later became Governor of New 
York, major-general, and commander-in-chief of